2nd Year Biology Key Points Notes PDF Download. 2nd Year Biology Key Points Notes PDF Download All chapters in F.sc Biology Part 2 are important (cramming notes).
Key Points in Biology for the Second Year
The essential points for each chapter of Biology are listed here. Look at the table of contents provided below first.
- Support and Movement
- Nervous Coordination
- Chemical Coordination
- Development and Aging
- Chromosomes and DNA
- Man and his Environment
- Biology and Human Welfare
Key Points in Biology Examples
Continual loss of ions.
These animals produce a lot of diluted pee to combat these issues. Through the active movement of salts from the external, diluted environment into their bodies, these animals also possess oocytes.
- oocytes are found in amphiboles’ skin & gills of fishes.
- Marine animals are both osmoconformers (isotonic) & osmoregulation, hypotonic).
- Cartilaginous fishes such as rays, sharks & skates, and some cyclostomes like Maxine (Hagfish) are isotonic (same concentration w.r.t environment) to seawater.
- Bony fishes (marine teleosts) are hypotonic (body’s solute cone. less than their environment) to seawater. These animals face the problems like,
Excess of salts due to the drinking of seawater (shrinkage of the body).
Loss of water
These animals deal with such problems by drinking a large amount of water to replace water loss. They excrete monovalent ions (Nat Cl) through gills, divalent ions (Mg”, Ca”) through kidneys & also removes both kinds of ions through rectal glands.
- Dehydration is the major problem in terrestrial animals.
- The presence of chitin as an exoskeleton in arthropods & dead keratinized skin in mammals is the adaptation to reduce dehydration from their body.
- The ability of animals to tolerate dehydration for a certain period of time is called anhydrobiosis e.g. Kangaroo rat.
- The primary nitrogenous waste product is ammonia, a small & very toxic molecule.
- Some animals excrete their ammonia directly, others first convert it to less toxic wastes such as urea or uric acid and then excrete it.
- Ammonia is 100,000 times more toxic than urea.
11.1g of Nitrogen, in the form of Ammonia, requires 500ml of water to dissolve it to a non-toxic level.
12.1g of Nitrogen, in the form of Urea, requires 50ml of water to dissolve it to a non-toxic level.
13.1g of Nitrogen, in the form of Uric acid, requires just1 ml of water for its excretion.
- Most aquatic animals including bony fishes, protozoans, sponges, coelomates & echinoderms are ammonite animals.
- Mammals, most amphibians, sharks & some bony fishes are ureotelic.
Several Biology Resources
National MDCAT Book By Dogar Unique Hi Brain 2022
Genetics Worksheet NMDCAT Biology MCQs 2022
11th Biology MCQs Cell Structure and Function Pdf Download
Early Prep Test Stars Academy MDCAT Biology With Keys Download
KIPS Topic Wise Test NMDCAT Biology With Answer Keys
Biology Earlier Prep Repeaters NMDCAT Test 4 2022
NMDCAT All Tests With Keys Kips Biology Early Prep 2022
Biology MCQs in Caravan For Fsc and Entry Test
2nd Year Biology Key Points Notes PDF Download
Biology Part 2 Entry Test Respiration Key Points Pdf
Key Concepts for Biology Part 2 Entry Test pdf
Cramming Notes for Kingdom Protista and Fungi (PDF)
Biology Part 1 Entry Test Preparation Prokaryotes Key Points
MDCAT Biology Entry Test Preparation Acellular Life Key Points
Enzyme Key Concepts Chapter 3 MDCAT Biology Entry Test Preparation
Biology Key Concepts Unit 2 Biological Molecules Entry Exam
Biology Kingdom Protista MCQs for the MDCAT
Biology MCQs MDCAT 11th With Keys
UHS MDCAT Biology Past Papers with Answer Keys 2022
Biology Kips Mdcat Mcqs With Solutions
Stars Academy MDCAT Tests Biology With Keys 2022
PMS Biology MCQs Answers Assessment 2022
Biology NUMS Entry Test Past Paper 2022 with Answers
- MDCAT Biology Online Tests
- 2nd Year Biology solved MCQs
- For more practice mcqs visit this site.