2nd Year Biology Key Points Notes PDF Download

2nd Year Biology Key Points Notes PDF Download. 2nd Year Biology Key Points Notes PDF Download All chapters in F.sc Biology Part 2 are important (cramming notes).

Key Points in Biology for the Second Year

The essential points for each chapter of Biology are listed here. Look at the table of contents provided below first.

  • Respiration
  • Homeostasis
  • Support and Movement
  • Nervous Coordination
  • Chemical Coordination
  • Behavior
  • Reproduction
  • Development and Aging
  • Inheritance
  • Chromosomes and DNA
  • Evolution
  • Man and his Environment
  • Biotechnology
  • Biology and Human Welfare

Key Points in Biology Examples

Continual loss of ions.
These animals produce a lot of diluted pee to combat these issues. Through the active movement of salts from the external, diluted environment into their bodies, these animals also possess oocytes.

  1. oocytes are found in amphiboles’ skin & gills of fishes.
  2. Marine animals are both osmoconformers (isotonic) & osmoregulation, hypotonic).
  3. Cartilaginous fishes such as rays, sharks & skates, and some cyclostomes like Maxine (Hagfish) are isotonic (same concentration w.r.t environment) to seawater.
  4. Bony fishes (marine teleosts) are hypotonic (body’s solute cone. less than their environment) to seawater. These animals face the problems like,
    Excess of salts due to the drinking of seawater (shrinkage of the body).
    Loss of water

These animals deal with such problems by drinking a large amount of water to replace water loss. They excrete monovalent ions (Nat Cl) through gills, divalent ions (Mg”, Ca”) through kidneys & also removes both kinds of ions through rectal glands.

  1. Dehydration is the major problem in terrestrial animals.
  2. The presence of chitin as an exoskeleton in arthropods & dead keratinized skin in mammals is the adaptation to reduce dehydration from their body.
  3. The ability of animals to tolerate dehydration for a certain period of time is called anhydrobiosis e.g. Kangaroo rat.
  4. The primary nitrogenous waste product is ammonia, a small & very toxic molecule.
  5. Some animals excrete their ammonia directly, others first convert it to less toxic wastes such as urea or uric acid and then excrete it.
  6. Ammonia is 100,000 times more toxic than urea.

11.1g of Nitrogen, in the form of Ammonia, requires 500ml of water to dissolve it to a non-toxic level.
12.1g of Nitrogen, in the form of Urea, requires 50ml of water to dissolve it to a non-toxic level.
13.1g of Nitrogen, in the form of Uric acid, requires just1 ml of water for its excretion.

  1. Most aquatic animals including bony fishes, protozoans, sponges, coelomates & echinoderms are ammonite animals.
  2. Mammals, most amphibians, sharks & some bony fishes are ureotelic.

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