Biology Part 1 Entry Test Preparation Prokaryotes Key Points. Biology Part 1 Entry Test Preparation Prokaryotes Key Points The most important cramming key points for kingdom prokaryotes for mdcat Biology preparation.
Principles of Prokaryotes (Cramming Notes)
Prokaryotes key points that can help you to cover the conceptual points of whole topic. The list is given below.
- Prokaryotes are organisms whose cells do not contain a distinct nucleus, bounded by a nuclear envelope,
- About f300 species’ of Prokaryotes have been identified.
- Prokaryotes include both the bacteria and the “chaea, which appear to be only distantly related to bacteria.
- Archaea are single-celled microorganisms with structures similar to bacteria.
- They are evolutionarily distinct from bacteria and eukaryotes.
- Archaea are obligate anaerobes living in environments low in oxygen (eg., water, soil).
- Archaea lives in both extreme conditions and moderate environments.
- Archaea inhabiting extreme environments are called extremophiles.
- Extremophiles are further divided into extreme halophiles and extreme thermophiles.
- Extreme halophiles live in a high salt environment such as Utah°s Great
Salt Lake and the Dead Sea.
- Extreme thermophiles live in high temperatures.
- Extreme thermophiles forms dense communities in boiling water 121-degree centigrade.
- Archaea living in moderate conditions are called methanogens.
- Methanogens live in a strict anaerobic environment.
- Bacteria are microscopic organisms first seen by Van Leuwenhoek in 1618.
- There are more living bacteria in our mouths than mammals living on earth.
- proteobacteria are a large group of Gram-negative bacteria and include ‘ photoautotrophs, chemoautotrophs, and heterotrophs. ‘
- proteobacteria are divided into five sub-groups;
b. Beta-proteobactetia ‘
d. Oelta-proteobacteria • “””~
- Many species of alpha proteobacteria are associated with eukaryotic hosts such as the symbiotic association of Rhizobium species with the roots of leguminous plants for the Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.
- Beta proteobacteria is a nutritionally diverse group. The bacteria d= involved in nitrogen recycling oxidizing ammonium, producing nitrites as a waste product.
- Gamma proteobacteria include sulfur bacteria that obtain energy by oxidizing h2S instead of water.
- Delta-proteobacteria includes the slime-secreting myxobacteria. When the soil is dry or food is scarce, they aggregate into fruit bodies releasing
- Epsilon proteobacteria most species are pathogenic and cause diseases in humans and animals.
- Gram-positive bacteria contain both solitary and colonial forms.
- Actlnomycetes, which is a subgroup of Gram-positive bacteria cause tuberculosis and leprosy.
- Most actinomycetes are free-living and decompose the organic matter in the soil.
- Species of Streptomyces are cultured as a source of many antibiotics including streptomycin.
- Mycoplasma is the only genus of bacteria known to lack a cell wall.
- Chlamydias are parasitic Gram-negative bacteria and cause some common diseases in humans.
- Spirochetes are helical heterotrophs spiral through their environment by means of rotating internal filaments.
31, Many species of Bacteria possess a tight protective covering around the
a cell called a capsule.
- A capsule that is less tightly bound to the cell is called the glycocalyx.
- The cell wall of bacteria protects the cell and gives it a definite shape.
- It is made up of peptidoglycan which is a carbohydrate-protein complex.
- Based on the variations in chemical constituents of cell wall Hans Christian Gram, a Danish physician, developed a staining technique in
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