Cramming Notes for Kingdom Protista and Fungi (PDF) .Kingdom Protista and Fungi Cramming Notes PDF Download. Key points notes of mdcat Biology Part 1 from past papers of entry tests.
Notes on Kingdom Protista and Fungi
cramming notes gleaned from mdcat Biology prior exams. The following document can be read online or downloaded.
1. Protists are the simplest primitive eukaryotes, consists of about 60,000 – 200,000 species.
2. Protists include both unicellular and multicellular organisms.
3. Examples of unicellular protists are; Euglena, Amoebic, Chlamydomonas, Plasmodium, etc.
4. Examples of multicellular protists are; Spirogyra and Kelps.
5. Some protists have chloroplast and synthesize their own food and are collectively called Algae.
6, Protista can be categorized into three main groups:
a. Animal-like Protists (Protozoa)
b. Plant-like Protists
c. Fungi like Protists
7. Trypanosomes are kinetoplastids that cause many serious human diseases the most familiar being trypanosomiasis, also known as African sleeping diseases.
8. Termites feed upon wood but they cannot digest it due to the absence of a specific enzyme which brings about the breakdown to digest the wood eaten by termite.
9. Trachonymph lies in the digestive tract of termites which produce an enzyme that helps in the digestion of wood.
10. Amoebas are the soft shapeless masses of cytoplasm reproduces by binary fission.
11. The change in the shape of amoeba is brought about by cytoplasmic streaming which forms cell extensions called pseudopodia.
12. Pseudopodia stream around the prey and engulf it in a vacuole.
13. Members of the Phylum Foraminifera are heterotrophic marine protists. They resemble tiny snails.
14. They secrete beautifully sculpted shells made out of calcium carbonate or limestone.
15. Apicomplexes are spore-forming parasites of animals. The best-known, apicomplexan is the malarial parasite plasmodium.
16. Female Anopheles mosquito is the carrier of plasmodium.
17. When an infected female Anopheles mosquito bites a person, sporozoites are injected into the bloodstream, which is then carried to the liver where they stay and divides to form me zones.
18. Merozoites emerge from the liver and invade red blood cells.
19. The infected red blood cells burst releasin9 the merozOites. The hosts at
this stage starts showing the symptoms of malaria.
20. Ciliates are extremely complex organisms with cilia usually arranged in longitudinal rows or in spirals around the cell.
21. All ciliates have two different types of nuclei within the cells, Small micronuclei and larger macronuclei.
22. Macronuclei are essential for physiological function whereas micronuclei are needed only for sexual reproduction.
23. Euglenozooid includes 54 genera, 40 of them have chloroplast and are autotrophs while 14 are heterotrophs.
24. Some euglenoids chloroplast become nonfunctional when found in dark and adapted heterotrophic mode of nutrition when brought to the light their chloroplast becomes functional and are few hours they start preparing their food.
25. Two unequal size flagella arise from the deep region called a reservoir.
26. Dinol7agellate are unicellular autotrophs, live both in marine or freshwater” environments, containing chlorophyll a, c and carotenoids.
27. Cell wall is generally absent in dinoflagellates but if present composed of ‘ cellulose.
28. Dinoflagellates possess two flagella, one encircles the body which causes the spinning of the organism, other is perpendicular to it, which helps to move the organism in a specific direction.
29. lt forms RED tiles collection of dinoflagellates form resurface on the water
30. Diatoms are autotrophic contains chlorophyll a, c and carotenoids, and are covered by a shell of SILICA.
31. Most diatoms reproduce asexually, Sexual reproduction is NOT common.
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