Key Concepts for Biology Part 2 Entry Test pdf

Key Concepts for Biology Part 2 Entry Test pdf. Key Points for Respiration Test for Part 2 of Biology. Biology part 2 Unit Respiration’s most crucial points and cramming notes. Obtain or read online.

Key Points for Respiration

Here are some important cramming notes respiration key points of Biology part 2.

1. Respiration: The Inhalation of oxygen and exhalation of CO2 is called respiration or simply the act of breathing is called respiration.

2. The Inhalation of oxygen is called inspiration.

3. Normally respiration is involuntarily controlled by a respiratory center called the medulla oblongata.

4. In the medulla oblongata, the ventral medulla is an inspiratory center which Dorsal and later Amelia is an expiratory center.

5. During voluntary resp7iation, the impulse arises from the cerebral hemisphere and is the transformed hi the ‘nebula oblongata.

6. Respiratory surface: The area where gaseous exchange with the environment actually takes place is called the respiratory surface.

7. A respiratory surface must have the following properties;

> It must be permeable.

> It must be thin for ancient delusion over a distance of 1mm or less.

> It should possess a large surface area for a sufficient amount of gaseous exchange. it should be vascularized.

> It should have proper ventilation.

8. Kunian respiratory system consists of;

> Nose and nasal cavities

> Pharynx      

> Larynx                    

> Trachea       

> Bronchi and bronchioles

> Alveoli in the lungs ,

9. Nose is the ONLY externally visible part of the respiratory system.

10. Pharynx is the pan of both the digestive and respiratory systems.

11. Trachea serves as an air canal and also a pan of the respiratory system. IA The length of the Trachea is 12cm & its width is 2cm.

12. The walls of the trachea are stiffened by16 to 20 “horseshoe “shaped

Incomplete rings that open towards the back.

13. The region where the trachea divides into two bronchi is called the carina.

14. Trachea divides into right and left bronchi. The right bronchus has a larger diameter and is shorter than the left bronchus.

Bronchioles are located at the end of bronchi and terminate in the Alveoli.          

15. Bronchioles are 1mm or less in diameter. Their walls consist of ciliated cuboidal epithelium and a layer of smooth muscle.

16. Bronchioles have no cartilaginous plates.

17. The walls of the alveolus are 0.1 um thick.

18. There are over 700 million alveoli present in the lungs, representing a total surface area of 70-90 m’.

19. There are approximately 350 million alveoli in each lung.

20. The wall of the alveoli has a layer of squamous epithelium cells.

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